The first image was taken just after a cloud-front had passed over Rexburg. Though the building is relatively darker, the sky is the focal point, and lots of detail is preserved with the different shadings and hues.
Light as represented in the second image is much different: I was going for a near-monochrome look, using a high-output LED light shining through the woofer chassis of a Harman Kardon speaker system onto a textured, near-white wall.
Focus is changed on the next two examples simple by using the “touch to focus” feature of most smartphones on my Nexus 4. One touch was on the flower cluster, and the other was on the bricks of the Taylor building, providing enough clarity to see the outline of individual bricks.
The bike and parts of the stand are sharpened in the fifth photo, to help bring it out from the softer details. Using the rule of thirds, the two rightmost vertices of the lines used to make thirds land on the middle of the bike, and the labeling on the building.
Lastly, the fire hydrant was used as an example of using lead room. I got the idea when I noticed how much it contrasted with the grass, and imagined its ‘face’ to be the larger protrusion.
Photoshop was used to enhance the images using the “vibrance” tool, which was set anywhere between 30 and 70 for all of the pictures but the second light one. Here, I wanted to emphasize light over color, and set the tool to about -40.
Prior to using that tool, I adjusted the levels of the mid-tones, highlights, and shadows with the level tool, ensuring that details could be seen, and highlights weren’t blown out. Finally, the images were flattened by selecting Layer>Flatten, and re-sized with their longest sides all measuring 800 pixels.